9. Peter in a Maze <<< Contents >>> 11. Plenty of Monsters
Let us stay with the Way program from the last chapter. We will edit it, so that we can control Peter in the maze with our keyboard. We will try several methods of control, and we will keep all of them in the program for the sake of comparisons. We will also keep the method, in which Peter searches for his way himself.
From the program control group, drag the group element into the main program cycle. Move all of the elements that are in the main cycle now (the element for turning right, the cycle for finding a free square, and the step command) into this group. Collapse the group and add a note to it saying Peter Walks Himself. This hides the automatic search method, so that it will not be mixed with other methods that we will create. Try to run the program for testing purposes. It should run just as before the modification.
Click the new group icon to select it. On the toolbar, click the Turn Off button. The group and all of the elements in it become gray. This function enables you to turn off parts of a program when you dont need them. When you run the program, you see that Peter stands in the bottom left corner and nothing happens. The program behaves as if the group and its commands were not in it at all.
We will assemble a new part of our program inside the main program cycle, right after the previous group. We will use a new element multibranch control structure (sometimes also called "rake" among programmers). It is in the program control group. Drag it into the main cycle under the Peter Walks Himself group.
The multibranch element branches programs into several parts, depending on a variable or expression value. Usually, branching is based on numeric values. Later we will also use it for other types of data, such as texts.
This element contains another four elements. The first element, for value of expression , contains a variable or an expression, which is the basis for branching. We will put the key input (waits to be pressed) element here. It will pass a numeric code of the key pressed to the branching structure.
Two connected elements follow execute commands in case of and expression is equal to . This is one branch of the construction. Into expression is equal to, you place a value, for which the commands in the branch will be executed. There can be any number of branches, as well as any number of values tested in a branch. Copy the whole of the execute commands in case of branch for three more times.
Now we have four branches of the construction. Into the tested value in the first branch, put the Up key code from the controls , keyboard , keys , control keys group. This branch will be executed when you press the up arrow key. Insert a step as the branch command . We will ensure that Peter does not walk through a wall. It is not necessary to check the sheet border; Peter cannot run away from the sheet. Instead of a simple step, we will use a conditional command. In the test, we will compare items to see whether there is a wall in front of Peter. If there is, nothing will happen. If there isnt, Peter will make a step.
Into the following three branches, insert the Left , Right , and Down keys as the tested values, and left , right , and turn about as the commands.
The last element in the branching construction is else execute commands . As its name suggests, the commands here will be executed, if the tested value is not found in any branch. In our case, this element will be empty.
Run the program. Peter stands in the bottom left corner. If you try the cursor keys (arrows), you will see that Peter turns to the left, right, and back, and that he makes a step forward. You can lead Peter around the maze. When you get to the door, Peter turns to you, and the program ends after the next key is pressed.
This method of control is typical for cars. It is used when we need to turn an object exactly to a direction we want, and when the speed of movement around the sheet is not that important.
If you need to move quickly and easily, you can use the following method of control. It does not control the turns of the character, but walking in the direction of the arrow.
Using the right mouse button, copy the previous branching construction once more to the bottom. Disable the original construction by using the Turn Off button. Label the new construction Controlling Peter by Directions. Delete the commands for turning to the right, left, and back from the branches.
We will edit the first branch of the construction (for the up arrow) to make Peter turn up and make a step. The step is already prepared. Inside it, there is a test of a wall in front of Peter. The direction into which Peter turns can be set by the direction element. It is located in Peters extensions. As a parameter, add the up (1/2 pi, that is 90 degrees) element from the calculations group, angle, direction subgroup.
Create the direction setting commands in the remaining branches as well, changing the directions accordingly to the arrows. The command for the cautious step might be copied from the first branch, but we will use a function instead.
What is a function? Function is an element that contains a part of a program. Instead of several occurrences of the same part of a program, we will use a function to perform the part of the program several times. The program will be easier to read and modify.
To create a new function, drag the function element from the Library of Variables and Functions window into the Global Variables and Functions window. Label the function Cautious Step Forward. When you double-click the function icon, an empty editing window appears, as the function does not contain any command yet.
We could create the step command in the function, but there is an easier way, as it is already prepared in the program. Switch back to the main program function (using the Previous Edit button), and find the conditional command with the wall test and the step forward (it is in the branch for the up arrow). Click the conditional command to highlight it. Click the Copy button (or press Ctrl+C on the keyboard). The highlighted part will be saved in the clipboard for data transfer.
Return to the Cautious Step Forward function (by clicking the Next Edit button). Click the Paste button (or press Ctrl+V). The transferred part of the program appears in the window.
Now we can delete the conditional command from the branch for the up arrow, and replace it with the function for the careful step. We will also add it into the remaining branches behind the direction setting commands.
You can run and test the command. You will see Peter walking in the direction of the arrow pressed.
We will try one more method of control, which can be used for more complicated and complex games. You may have noticed that if you hold a key for a while in the previous method, Peter walks on even after you release the key. This is because the codes of the keys pressed are generated more quickly than Peter walks, and so they are kept in the key stack. This can be solved by the flush out of key buffer command, which clears the keys out of the stack. We will use it in the beginning of the actions for every valid keyboard character, before Peters steps.
Another thing that can be problematic in the previous two methods of control takes effect if you control quick actions or need to control graphics sharply. In the Peter sprites settings, try to change the Phases per Step value to 1 (after the test, return it back to 8). Peter will jump the squares quickly. If you hold the key on a longer free path, Peter jumps one square, waits a little while, and then jumps to other squares quickly. This is caused by the way that the keyboard generates codes there is a pause after the first code, and then there are quick repetitions. This is useful when you write text, but may be a bit of a trouble when playing games.
Our request is that Peter should move when we hold a key, without the initial pause, and without the inertia after the key is released. This can be done by using the there is pressed key function from the keyboard group. The function tests if the appropriate key is pressed, and returns a yes/no flag.
First, click the Turn Off button to turn off the previous method again. Under the method, prepare a conditional executing of commands element; you can call it Controlling Peter by Holding Keys. Into the if valid condition test, insert the there is pressed key element, and attach the Up key as its parameter. Into the then do branch, insert the commands for making a step upwards, as in the previous control method. The construction now reads: "If the Up key is pressed, then turn up and make a cautious step, else test other keys."
In the else do branch, create the same construction, this time for going to the left. In its invalidity branch, create a construction for going to the right, and finally, create a similar construction for going down. Into the invalidity branch of the going down construction, insert the wait (default = 0.05 s) command, which can be found in the program control group. The small equals sign in front of the icon indicates that there is an optional parameter of this command, which means that it is not necessary to add one.
Why a wait command? Windows is a multitasking operating system, which means that several programs can run at once. Each program should ensure that it does not consume an unnecessary amount of the computers performance. A good programmer can be distinguished by a considerate behavior of his or her programs in their environment. Advanced users can run the System Monitor program and monitor the load on the processor. An inconsiderate program consumes almost all of the computers performance, and causes the computer to be hard to control.
The picture shows the complete method of controlling Peter. The constructions for steps are collapsed, as we already know them from the previous method.
A disadvantage of such a long chain of conditions is that it can be hard to orientate in. We will try another possibility of building a similar construction.
Click Turn Off to disable the last method. Copy the Controlling Peter by Directions method and rename it to Controlling by Holding Keys 2. The conditional construction worked in such way that just one of the branches was executed, depending on the key pressed. Delete the keyboard input function from the for value of expression element, and replace it with the yes element (from calculations , logic operations ).
In the tested values of the individual branches, replace key codes with combinations of a key code and the there is pressed key element. Do the following: Click the key code icon to select the key code element. Click the Cut button (or press Ctrl+X) to move the key code element into the clipboard. Insert the there is pressed key element instead of the key code element. Click the Paste button (or press Ctrl+V) to attach the key code element to the pressed key test. Finally, insert the wait (default = 0.05 s) element into the else execute commands branch, so that the program does not overload the computer in moments of inactivity.
The resulting construction is on the following picture. How does it work? In the beginning, the program detects that there will be a test of a logical value of validity in its branches. It goes through the individual branches and searches for a matching value, that is, for a valid condition. It performs the commands in the branch it finds, and continues behind the end of multibranch structure (not paying attention to other conditions that might be valid, nor to other branches). In another words, the first (and only) branch with a valid condition (a key pressed) is performed, else the very last command is performed wait.
9. Peter in a Maze <<< Contents >>> 11. Plenty of Monsters